compiled by Wolfgang A. Nässig
Recent treatises on the Saturniidae of Nepal were published
by M. Allen in 1993 and within the publication series “Moths of Nepal”
of Japanese authors (1992–1998):
|M. Allen (1993):
Marvellous moths of Nepal
Know Nepal Series no. 6. (Edited by Trilok Chandra Majupuria,
Kathmandu [Nepal]; published by Rohit Kumar, Lashkar/Gwalior [India]; printed
by Craftsman Press, Bangkok [Thailand]), 72 pp., col. ill., ISBN 974-7315-46-7
Also available from Erich
BAUER, Antiquariat Goecke & Evers.
To this book the following corrections have to be made
(see below). — Allen listed a total of
22 species of Saturniidae found by him in nepal, with a few misidentifications
and printer’s errors in the legends.
|T. Haruta (founding
Moths of Napal
Part 1 (1992), Part 2 (1993), Part 3 (1994), Part
4 (1995), Part 5 (1998)
There is no complete checklist of Nepalese Saturniidae
provided thus far by the authors; in the 5 contributions listed below they
counted 20 species, with several misidentifications.
Also available from Erich
BAUER, Antiquariat Goecke & Evers.
T. Haruta (1992): Moths of Nepal, Part 1, Saturniidae. — Tinea,
13, Suppl. 2: 93–94, pl. 25/26.
T. Haruta (1993): [Addenda to part 1], Saturniidae. — Tinea, Tokyo,
Suppl. 3: 147, pl. 63.
T. Haruta (1994): Saturniidae. — Tinea, Tokyo, 14, Suppl. 1:
159, pl. 93.
T. Haruta (1995): [Higher altitude moths and addenda to parts 1–3],
Saturniidae. — Tinea, Tokyo, 14, Suppl. 2: 89, pl. 104.
Y. Kishida (1998): [Moths from central and western Nepal], Saturniidae.
— Tinea, Tokyo, 15, Suppl. 1: 39–40, pl. 134.
To these books the following corrections have to be made
|Additional information see in Brechlin (1997).
The following species of Saturniidae
are presently known from Nepal:
arrangement according to the order used in the more recent Sumatran
and Philippine Saturniidae faunas. Additions
or changes in comparison to the literature are listed and explained in
following the list. The systematics and nomenclature applied here are therefore
identical with the original treatments! — See also the disclaimer
below. — References see at the end.
Based on the present knowledge, we count at least 27 species of Saturniidae
in Nepal (there are most likely more).
Superfamily Bombycoidea Latreille,
Family Saturniidae Boisduval, 1837 (“1834”)
Subfamily Salassinae Michener, 1949
Genus Salassa Moore, 1859 (see
Salassa royi Elwes, 1887
Subfamily Saturniinae Boisduval, 1837 (“1834”)
Salassa lola (Westwood, 1847)
Tribe Attacini Blanchard, 1840
Genus Attacus Linnaeus, 1767
Attacus atlas (Linnaeus, 1758)
Watson, 1914 (see
Archaeoattacus edwardsii (White, 1859)
Genus Samia Hübner, 
most likely more than one species, yet unidentified
Tribe Saturniini Boisduval, 1837
Genus Rhodinia Staudinger, 1892
Rhodinia newara Moore, 1872 (see
Genus Actias Leach, 1815
Actias maenas (Doubleday, 1847)
Genus Saturnia Schrank, 1802
Actias selene (Hübner, 1806)
Subgenus Rinaca Walker, 1855 (see
Saturnia (Rinaca) zuleika Hope, 1843
Subgenus Saturnia Schrank, 1802
Saturnia (Rinaca) thibeta Westwood, 1853
Saturnia (Rinaca) simla Westwood, 1847
Saturnia (Rinaca) cachara Moore, 1872
Saturnia (Rinaca) witti Brechlin, 1997 (see
Saturnia (Rinaca) anna Moore, 1865 (see
Saturnia (Rinaca) lindia Moore, 1865 (see
Saturnia (Rinaca) grotei Moore, 1859
Saturnia (Saturnia) pyretorum Westwood,
Genus Loepa Moore, 1859
Genus Cricula Walker, 1855
Loepa miranda Moore, 1865
Loepa katinka (Westwood, 1847)
Loepa diversiocellata Bryk, 1944
Loepa sikkima sikkima Moore, 1865 (see
Cricula trifenestrata (Helfer, 1837) (see
Genus Antheraea Hübner,
Subgenus Antheraeopsis Wood-Mason, 1886
Antheraea (Antheraeopsis) spec.
Hübner, 1819 [“1816”]
Antheraea (Antheraea) frithi Moore, 1859
Possible further species of Saturniidae in Nepal:
Antheraea (Antheraea) mylitta (Drury, 1773) (see
Antheraea (Antheraea) helferi Moore, 1892 (see
Antheraea (Antheraea) (pernyi) roylii roylii Moore,
Many of the species known from the North Indian Himalaya might also
be detected in Nepal. Collecting at light in Nepal still was not yet done
in all areas of the country at all times of the year, and we expect several
further taxa to be discovered. Even the discovery of totally new species
might not yet be ruled out, see Brechlin (1997).
Any taxonomic changes proposed here within this web page are not proposed
as valid taxonomic acts in accordance with the Code; they are only suggestions
to promote the ongoing discussion among the specialists. Real changes must
await a publication in print.
Additional references see below!
It is possible
that there may be more species of the subfamily and genus living in Nepal
than those listed by Allen and the Japanese authors cited here. For example,
it can be expected that one of the “big reddish” species of the genus Salassa
may be found in Nepal. — Back.
of the genus Archaeoattacus are sometimes misplaced in Attacus,
but Archaeoattacus appears to be more closely related to Samia
than to Attacus. — Back.
The valid names
for the species of Samia living in Nepal remain to be assessed;
a revision of the whole genus is in preparation by R.S. Peigler and S.
See also corrections
of the genus Saturnia follow Nässig (1994). Caligula
Moore, 1862 is senior objective synonym of Dictyoploca Jordan, 1911.
The name Caligula was used in subjective synonymy to Rinaca
Walker, 1855 as a subgenus of Saturnia Schrank, 1802 by Nässig
(1994). — Back.
was described by Brechlin (1997). It is the Himalayan representative of
the boisduvalii/jonasi species-group, known from the type locality
and close localities in the Nepalese Ganesh Himal area thus far only.
species grotei, lindia and anna make up, together with some
further taxa in China, the monophyletic grotei-group from the Himalaya,
Tibet and further to the east. — Back.
was not listed by Allen (1993), but listed and illustrated by Haruta (1995).
was placed in the subgenus Eriogyna Jordan, 1913. However, Nässig
(1994) synonymized Eriogyna with
Saturnia (Saturnia). — The
true identities of the Himalayan members of the subgenus remain to be assessed.
was listed by Allen (1993) and Haruta (1994), but the illustrations provided
showed other species. We expect that the true L. sikkima will be
found to live within the political borders of Nepal, but the specimens
illustrated thus far are other taxa. For further misidentifications in
this genus, see below (under Allen and the Japanese
authors). — Back.
of the genus Cricula illustrated by Allen and Haruta may be trifenestrata,
but for a safe determination the specimens must be dissected. The additional
presence in Nepal of C. andrei seems to be likely. — Back.
was illustrated by Allen (1993) under the name “Antheraea assamensis
Helfer, 1837”. The true
A. (Ao.) assamensis is indeed a Himalayan
species, but the identity of the specimens illustrated remains to be assessed.
(Studies are in preparation, see under the website www.saturniidae-mundi.de).
fig. 40.c) figured a specimen which evidently is A. mylitta under
the name of A. frithi. The female figured by him in fig. 40.d might
either be A. frithi or A. mylitta, while the specimen figured
in his fig. 41.b most likely really is A. frithi. — Back.
listed for Nepal by Haruta (1992), but the specimen illustrated by him
is not that species (recte: A. roylii). However, it is quite likely
that A. helferi might also be found in Nepal. — Back.
An orange colour
form of A. roylii was misidentified by Haruta (1992) as “A. helferi”.
— This species is, for a special elevation range and series of vegetational
zones, the most common Antheraea species in the whole eastern Himalaya
range, thus also in Nepal. — Back.
The publications of
Allen (1993) and Haruta (1992–1995) contain a few misidentifications and
errors regarding Saturniidae and Brahmaeidae, which we like to correct
(This text was already published
by Nässig & Brechlin in Brechlin 1997: 424; it is supplemented
|Corrections for M. Allen (1993)
P. 54: recte Archaeoattacus edwardsii.
P. 58, fig. 40.c appears to be a male of Antheraea mylitta.
P. 60/61: Figs. 42.b & 42.c figure Loepa katinka, fig. 44 is
miranda; L. sikkima is not illustrated.
P. 62, figs. 45.b & 45.c are interchanged, the specimen top right is
the female of Rhodinia newara, the specimen bottom right is the
male of Cricula sp. (Possibly andrei instead of trifenestrata?
This requires dissection.)
P. 63, figs. 46.b & 46.c illustrate Saturnia (Rinaca) zuleika.
P. 65, figs. 48.a & 48.b figure Saturnia (Rinaca) thibeta.
P. 66, figs. 49.a & 49.b are both males, but the question is whether
this really is Saturnia (Saturnia) pyretorum or another species;
the Nepalese specimens are not yet studied.
P. 68: recte Brahmaea wallichii.
P. 69: the caterpillar figured on top left is Saturnia zuleika.
|Corrections for the Japanese
series “Moths of Nepal” (1992–1998)
Part 1 (Haruta 1992)
Plate 25: fig. 1 is Brahmaea hearseyi, fig. 2 is Br. wallichii.
Plate 25: fig. 5 recte Archaeoattacus edwardsii.
Plate 26, fig. 3 illustrates the orange-brownish form of Antheraea roylei
and not A. helferi — we do not doubt that A. helferi may
well live in Nepal, but the illustration is clearly misidentified.
Plate 26, fig. 9: As long as the identity of the true cynthia of
Drury, 1775 remains obscure (see Peigler 1992), entomologists should be
cautious using that name. The specimen illustrated is, most likely, not
but its true identity remains open.
Part 2 (Haruta 1993)
Plate 63: the generic name Dictyoploca is a junior objective synonym
and, therefore, must not be used; the best combination would be Saturnia
Part 3 (Haruta 1994)
P. 159: The same problems with the spelling of Archaeoattacus edwardsii
and the use of Samia “cynthia” already mentioned; a second Samia
species (probably canningii, see figure in Allen) lives as well
In spite of the correction by the author, the specimen figured on pl. 26,
fig. 2, is utmost likely Loepa katinka (wingshape, fasciae, etc.)
and surely not L. sikkima, although we agree that L. sikkima
will most likely be found in Nepal as well.
The Loepa figured on pl. 93, fig. 5 is surely not katinka;
this worn specimen is most likely L. miranda. In any case, for a
safe identification of Loepa species a dissection is inevitable.
Part 4 (Haruta 1995)
Part 5 (Kishida 1998)
P. 40: Misspelling: recte Saturnia, not “Satrunia”.
R. (1997): Saturnia (Rinaca) witti n. sp., eine neue Saturniide
aus Nepal (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo,
Frankfurt/Main, N.F. 17 (4): 423–433.
W. A. (1994): Vorschlag für ein neues Konzept der Gattung Saturnia
Schrank 1802 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). — Nachr. entomol. Ver. Apollo,
Frankfurt am Main, N.F. 15 (3): 253–266
2000–2002 by W. A. Nässig — compiled & published 30. December
1999–8. May 2000, last changes 18. January 2002